Glossary

AES
Advanced Encryption Standard.Wikipedia icon

BAA
Business Associate Agreement (BAA). A contract between a HIPAA covered entity and a HIPAA business associate (BA). The contract protects personal health information (PHI) in accordance with HIPAA guidelines. Source.

Bandwidth
A measure of the rate at which information can be moved. Typically expressed in Mbps or Megabits per second.Wikipedia icon

Channel
In the Cloak Labs architecture, a combination of two endpoints, a protocol, and defined actions to be taken.

Security Gateway
In the Cloak Labs architecture, the application that runs on-premises and is responsible for encryption/decryption, reliable data transfers, and executing actions on data pre/post transmission.

Customer Portal
In the Cloak Labs architecture, a website that allows you to track messages.

DICOM
The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for distributing and viewing any kind of medical image.Wikipedia icon

Digital Signature
A cryptographic method for proving the authenticity of a message, knowing with certainty who sent it and that it hasn’t been tampered with.Wikipedia icon

EC2
Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud

ESB
Enterprise Service Bus. A software architecture model used for designing and implementing communication between mutually interacting software applications.Wikipedia icon

End-to-End encryption (E2EE)
Encryption of a message between two endpoints such that no one in the middle can read it. This differs from link encryption where one or more links in the path between the two endpoints might be encrypted, possibly leaving gaps where data can exist in the clear (unencrypted).Wikipedia icon

Firewall
Network software and/or hardware which controls access to a network.Wikipedia icon

Hash
A transformation of a sequence of bytes (for example a message or file) that is typically designed to return a unique short sequence. Computing the hash of a file can be used to verify that the file has not been changed since even a one byte change will change the hash value.Wikipedia icon

HIE
Health Information Exchange: a secure method of sharing vital patient information electronically. Cloud Labs as applied to healthcare data is technically an HIE.Wikipedia icon

HIPAA
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Title II of HIPAA, known as the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers.Wikipedia icon

HL7
Health Level 7. A standard data format and protocol for exchanging health information. HL7 messages contain protected health information (PHI) and in the US must by law (HIPAA) be encrypted in transit and at rest. Wikipedia icon

Latency
A measure of time delay in moving information across a network. Information can theoretically not travel faster than the speed of light but in practice is somewhat slower.Wikipedia icon

Meaningful Use
The Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs provide financial incentives for the “meaningful use” of certified EHR technology to improve patient care. To receive an EHR incentive payment, providers have to show that they are “meaningfully using” their EHRs by meeting thresholds for a number of objectives. CMS has established the objectives for “meaningful use” that eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) must meet in order to receive an incentive payment. Citation

Message Router
In the Cloak Labs architecture, an application in the cloud that helps route messages to their ultimate destination. Since Cloak Labs messages are fully encrypted the routers have no access to their content.

Multicast
Sending the same message or data to multiple recipients.Wikipedia icon

Multi-Path Delivery
In the Cloak Labs architecture, sending a message along redundant paths in order to guarantee delivery.

Non-Repudiation
Being able to prove that a message was delivered. Particularly important for the transmission of financial or billing information.Wikipedia icon

PCI DSS
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. The information security standard for organizations that handle cardholder information for the major debit, credit, prepaid, e-purse, ATM, and POS cards.Wikipedia icon

PHI
Protected Health Information. Interchangeably referred to as Personal Health Information.Wikipedia icon

PKI
Public Key Infrastructure: a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. Wikipedia icon

Private Key
The key that is never shared with anyone else. This key is used to decrypt an incoming message as well as to sign an outgoing message.Wikipedia icon

Public Key
The key assigned to an endpoint that can be publicly shared. It is used by other endpoints to encrypt messages as well as to validate the authenticity of senders.Wikipedia icon

RSA
A cryptosystem for public key encryption.Wikipedia icon

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. A cryptographic protocol that allows two computers to communicate without sharing any secret (or key) beforehand.Wikipedia icon

TLS
Transport Layer Security. The cryptographic protocol that is replacing SSL.Wikipedia icon

VPN
Virtual Private Network.Wikipedia icon

X12
The standard for the development and maintenance of Electronic Data Interchange standards for the United States.Wikipedia icon